Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 51 districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions. As of 2013, the state has 51 jila (district) panchayats, 313 janpad panchayats/blocks, and 23043 gram (village) panchayats. The municipalities in the state include 14 Nagar Nigams, 86 Nagar Palikas and 238 Nagar Panchayats.
Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state legislative assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House). The constitutional head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the President of India. The executionary powers lie with the Chief Minister, who is the elected leader of the state legislature. As of 2012, the current governor is Ram Naresh Yadav, and the chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chouhan of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike in many of the neighbouring states, the small or regional parties have not had much success in the state elections. In the November 2008 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 143 seats, defeating Congress which won 71 seats. Bahujan Samaj Party is the third major party in the state legislature, with 7 seats.